NEW YORK (AP) — George Wein, an administrator of 20th aeon music who helped begin the Newport Applesauce and Folk festivals and set the arrangement for gatherings everywhere from Woodstock to the south of France, died Monday.
Wein, 95, died “peacefully in his sleep” in his New York City apartment, said Carolyn McClair, a ancestors spokesperson.
A above applesauce club buyer and ambitious pianist, Wein launched the Newport Applesauce Anniversary in 1954 beneath cloudburst rain and with a calendar for the blast — Billie Holiday and Dizzy Gillespie, Ella Fitzgerald and Lester Young. Louis Armstrong was there the afterward year and Duke Ellington fabricated history in 1956, his band’s set featuring an extraordinary, 27-chorus abandoned from saxophonist Paul Gonsalves that about abandoned alive the middle-aged Ellington’s career.
Wein led the anniversary for added than 50 years and performers would accommodate about every above applesauce star, from Miles Davis and Thelonious Monk to Charles Mingus and Wynton Marsalis. Aloof in 1965, the bill featured Frank Sinatra, Count Basie, John Coltrane, Ellington, Gillespie, Davis and Monk.
“As a adolescent pianist and club owner, he accepted quality, admirable the giants of the music, and created a advocate Anniversary architecture that offered the widest accessible ambit of applesauce to abundant beyond alfresco audiences,” Marsalis said in a statement. “He admired cogent belief about Bird, Duke and all of the greats, agreeable in alive debates on a array of subjects, and was an optimistic adherent of adolescent talent.”
The success of Newport aggressive a beachcomber of applesauce festivals in the U.S. and Wein replicated his success worldwide, his added projects including the New Orleans Applesauce & Heritage Anniversary and the Grande Parade du Applesauce in Nice, France. His multiday, all-star gatherings were additionally a archetypal for bedrock festivals, whether Woodstock in 1969 or the Lollapalooza tours of contempo years.
Critic Gene Santoro empiric in 2003 that after Wein, “everything from Woodstock to Applesauce at Lincoln Center ability accept happened abnormally — if it happened at all.” Wein “can justifiably affirmation to accept invented, developed and codification the abreast accepted music festival,” Santoro wrote.
The abstraction for Newport came in allotment from locals Louis and Elaine Lorillard, who apprenticed Wein to adapt a applesauce anniversary in their gilded resort association in Rhode Island. Elaine Lorillard, a socialite, complained that the summer arena was “terribly boring.” Her tobacco-heir bedmate backed her up with a $20,000 donation.
Wein had never accepted of a all-embracing applesauce festival, so, in the spirit of the music, he improvised — gluttonous to amalgamate the activity and musicality of a Harlem applesauce club with the ambient of a summer classical concert in Tanglewood.
“What was a anniversary to me?” Wein after said. “I had no rulebook to go by. I knew it had to be article unique, that no applesauce fan had anytime been apparent to.”
Wein didn’t abandoned assignment with applesauce musicians. In 1959, he and Pete Seeger began a accompaniment folk anniversary that would affection aboriginal performances by Joan Baez and Jose Feliciano amid others and clue the change of Bob Dylan from ardent accompanist to rule-breaking bedrock star.
Dylan’s actualization in 1963 helped authorize him as the declared “voice of his generation,” but by 1965 he acquainted bedfast by the folk association and angry up at Newport with an electric band. The acknowledgment was mostly positive, but there were abundant boos from the army and conflicts backstage — Wein abandoned the fable that Seeger approved to cut the ability cables to Dylan’s amps — to accomplish Dylan’s actualization a battleground in bedrock and folk history.
In his account “Myself Amid Others,” Wein remembered against Dylan as he larboard the date and ambitious he acknowledgment to comedy article acoustic. Back Dylan resisted, adage he didn’t accept an acoustic guitar, Wein asked for volunteers to accommodate him one and helped actuate Dylan to go aback out. Years later, Wein remained confused by memories of audition Dylan sing “It’s All Over Now, Baby Blue,” a adieu carol in added means than one.
“It was a adieu to the celebrity and abstention of the folk revival,” Wein wrote. “There was no axis aback — not for Dylan, not for anyone.”
The Newport festivals accept led to abundant films and concert albums, conspicuously Murray Lerner’s Oscar-nominated 1967 documentary “Festival!”, with Dylan, Johnny Cash and Howlin’ Wolf amid the performers. Wein would after accompany in Led Zeppelin, Sly and the Ancestors Stone and James Brown and added bedrock and accent and dejection acts. In 2020, back Newport went basic because of the pandemic, Wein alien Mavis Staples from his home in Manhattan.
Wein himself had been a pianist back adolescence and he maintained an alive music career, absolution “Wein, Women and Song,” “Swing That Music” and several added albums and authoritative annual appearances at the Newport anniversary with his Newport All-Stars band. He was called a “Jazz Master” in 2005 by the National Endowment for the Arts and accustomed an honorary Grammy in 2014. Years earlier, President Clinton brought his saxophone to the White House date for a anniversary of the Newport Applesauce Festival.
Wein grew up in Newton, Massachusetts, his ancestor a dentist with a bank addiction and an eye for his secretary, his mother a pianist of “passable skills” and almsman to a cardboard articles fortune. As a teenager, he defied his ancestors by agreeable Black musicians to their home and in his 20s he anachronous a Black woman, Joyce Alexander, whom he affiliated in 1959. Joyce Wein, who became his business accomplice and abutting adviser, died in 2005.
Wein saw himself as aloof an “average middle-class, Jewish-American kid,” although one calmly bugged by music. He would bethink accessory a Benny Goodman concert and alert aloof a few anxiety abroad from trumpeter Cootie Williams.
“For the continuance of the black I stood alone, wide-eyed, at the bottom of the stage,” he wrote in “Myself Amid Others,” appear in 2003, “oblivious to the sea of couples bouncing about the ball attic abaft me.”
Wein enlisted in the Army during World War II and alert able accessible death: Hitler died in April 1945 as Wein and others were advancing the German front. Months later, he was absolved actuality transferred to the Pacific back the Japanese surrendered.
He accelerating from Boston University and started the Storyville applesauce club and almanac characterization in Boston, area Ellington, Charlie Parker and others came. Wein alike got to accompany some of the performances, including arena piano for a set by Holiday, whose approved keyboardist had not showed up.
The Newport anniversary lasted admitting advancing conflicts, whether objections from the locals in Newport, the crumbling address of jazz, or the demands and resentments of the musicians. In 1960, Mingus organized a battling anniversary to beef Wein’s declared discrimination amid performers and a anarchism at the Newport acquisition led to Wein’s actuality alone until 1962. In 1971, the booking of the Allman Brothers Bandage accepted adverse back bedrock admirers overran the anniversary grounds, alike ambience area music on fire, and brought about a decade-long banishment from Newport.
Wein, already declared by The New Yorker’s Lillian Ross as a chunky man “who seemed to be abounding with controlled frenzy,” was a fighter who faced bottomward racist admiral in New Orleans and chastised Monk for cat-and-mouse too continued to booty the date in Newport. He was additionally acceptable at math. He recruited Sinatra, Dionne Warwick and added accepted singers to advice abutment the applesauce artists. In the mid-1970s, he was disturbing financially and became amid the aboriginal accepted music promoters to assignment with accumulated sponsors, conspicuously the makers of Kool cigarettes.
In 2005, he awash his aggregation Anniversary Productions Inc. to Anniversary Network LLC and took on a added bound role at Newport. Six years later, he accustomed the nonprofit Newport Festivals Foundation to baby-sit the summertime events.
“I appetite the festivals to go on forever,” Wein told The Associated Press at the time. “With me it’s not a amount of business. This is my life.”
Associated Press biographer Michelle R. Smith contributed from Providence, Rhode Island. Above AP biographer Charles J. Gans additionally contributed to this report.
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